A Bibliography


Abd el-Rahim, M., Imperialism and Nationalism in the Sudan: A Study in Constitutional and Political Developments, 1899-1956, Oxford University Press, London, 1969.

Abd el-Rahim, M., Changing Patterns of Civilian-Military Relations in the Sudan, Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Uppsala, 1978.

Abdin, Hasan, Early Sudanese Nationalism, 1919-1925, Khartoum University Press, Khartoum, 1985.

Ahmed, Abel Ghaffar Mohamed, and Gunnar M. Sorbo, (Editors) Management of the Crisis in the Sudan: Proceedings of the Bergen Forum, 23-24 February, 1989, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, 1989.

Al-Affendi, Abdelwahab (October 2001), "The Impasse in the IGAD Peace Process for Sudan: The Limits of Regional Peacemaking?", African Affairs, Vol. 100, No. 401, pp. 581-599

Turabi's Revolution: Islam and Power in Sudan, Grey Seal Books, London, 1991.

Alier, Abel, Southern Sudan: Too Many Agreements Dishonoured, Ithaca Press, Exeter, 1990.

Albino, Oliver, The Sudan: A Southern Viewpoint, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1970

Allen, Tim, War and Peace in Southern Sudan, Makerere Institute of Social Research, Kampala, 1987.

Assefa, Hizkias, Mediation of Civil Wars: Approaches and Strategies - The Sudan Conflict, Westview, Boulder, 1987.

Bechtold, Peter, Politics in the Sudan, Praeger, London, 1978.

Beshir, Mohamed Omer, The Southern Sudan: Background to Conflict, C. Hurst and Company, London, 1968.

Revolution and Nationalism in Sudan, Rex Collings, London, 1974.

The Southern Sudan: From Conflict to Peace, C. Hurst and Company, London, 1975.

(Editor) Southern Sudan, Regionalism and Religion, Graduate College Publications, University of Khartoum, 1984.

Bleuchot, H., C. Delmet and D. Hopwood (Editors), Sudan: History, Identity and Ideology, Ithaca, Reading, 1991.

Burr, J. Millard and Robert O. Collins, Requiem for the Sudan: War, Drought and Disaster Relief on the Nile, Westview Press, Boulder, 1995.

Daly, M.W., Empire on the Nile: The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1898-1934, Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Imperial Sudan: The Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, 1934-1956, Cambridge University Press, 1985.

& A.A. Sikanga (Editors), Civil War in the Sudan, British Academic Press, London, 1993.

Deng, Francis, War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan, The Brookings Institution, Washington-DC, 1995.

(Editor), Their Brothers' Keepers: Regional Initiative for Peace in Sudan, InterAfrica Group, Addis Ababa, 1997.

& Larry Minear, The Challenges of Famine Relief: Emergency Operations in the Sudan, The Brookings Institution, Washington-DC, 1992.

& Prosser, Gifford (Editors), The Search for Peace in the Sudan, Wilson Center Press, Washington-DC, 1987.

Eprile, Cecil, War and Peace in the Sudan 1955-1972, David and Charles, London, 1974.

Fluerh-Lobban, Carolyn, Richard Lobban and John Voll, Historical Dictionary of the Sudan (2ndEdition), Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1992.

Henderson, K.D.D., The Making of the Modern Sudan, Faber & Faber, London, 1953.

Sudan Republic, Ernest Benn, London, 1965.

Hoebink, Michel, Constitutional Perspectives on Sudan (Proceedings of the IDF Seminar), Durham Middle East Paper No. 62, University of Durham Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies and International Dialogues Foundation, The Hague, December 1999.

Hoile, David, The SPLA: Fit to Govern?, The British-Sudanese Public Affairs Council, London, 1998.

Farce Majeure: The Clinton Administration's Sudan Policy 1993-2000, The European-Sudanese Public Affairs Council, London, 2000.

Holt, P.M. and M.W. Daly, A History of the Sudan: From the Coming of Islam to the Present Day, Longman, London, 1986.

Khalid Mansour, Nimeiri and the Revolution of Dis-May, Kegan Paul International, London, 1985.

The Government They Deserve: The Role of the Elite in Sudan's Political Evolution, Kegan Paul International, London, 1990.

(Editor), John Garang Speaks, Kegan Paul International, London, 1987.

Malwal, Bona, People and Power in the Sudan: The Struggle for National Identity, Ithaca, London, 1981.

Sudan: A Second Challenge to Nationhood, Thornton Book, New York, 1985.

The Sudan: A Second Challenge to Nationhood, Thornton Books, New York, 1985.

Lesch, Ann Mosely, The Sudan: Contested National Identities, James Currey, Oxford, 1998.

Mawut, Lazerus, The Southern Sudan: Why Back to Arms?, St George Printing Press, Khartoum, 1986.

Minear, Larry, in collaboration with T.A. Abuom, E. Chole, K. Manibe, A. Mohammed, J. Sebstad and T.G. Weiss, Humanitarianism under Siege: A Critical Review of Operation Lifeline Sudan, Red Sea Press, Trenton, New Jersey, 1990.

Niblock, Tim, Class and Power in Sudan, Macmillan, London, 1987.

Nyaba, Peter Adwok, The Politics of Liberation in South Sudan: An Insider's View, Fountain Publishers, Kampala, 1997.

O'Ballance, Edgar, The Secret War in the Sudan: 1955-72, Archon Books, Hamden, Connecticut, 1977.

Sudan, Civil War and Terrorism, 1956-99, St Martins Press, New York, 2000.

Oduhu, Joseph and William Deng, The Problem of the Southern Sudan, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1963.

Kok, Peter Nyot, Governance and Conflict in the Sudan, 1985-1995, Deutsches Orient-Institute, Hamburg, 1996.

Peace in Sudan Group, War in Sudan: An Analysis of Conflict, Peace in Sudan Group, London, 1990.

Petterson, Donald, Inside Sudan: Political Islam, Conflict and Catastrophe, Westview Press, Boulder, 1999.

Voll, John (Editor), Sudan: State and Society in Crisis, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1990.

Voll, John and Sarah Potts Voll, The Sudan: Unity and Diversity in a Multicultural State, Westview, Boulder, 1985.

Wai, Dunstan, The Southern Sudan: A Problem of National Integration, Frank Cass, London, 1973.

The African-Arab Conflict in the Sudan, Africana Publishing Company, New York and London, 1981.

Woodward, Peter, Sudan 1898-1989: The Unstable State, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, 1990.

Woodward, Peter (Editor), Sudan after Nimeiri, Routledge, London 1991.





Draft Organic Law to organize Regional Self-Government in the Southern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan

In accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan and in realization of the memorable May Revolution Declaration of June 9, 1969, granting the Southern Provinces of the Sudan Regional Self-Government within a united socialist Sudan, and in accordance with the principle of the May Revolution that the Sudanese people participate actively in and supervise the decentralized system of the government of their country, it is hereunder enacted:

Article 1. This law shall be called the law for Regional Self-Government in the Southern Provinces. It shall come into force and a date within a period not exceeding thirty days from the date of Addis Ababa Agreement.

Article 2. This law shall be issued as an organic law which cannot be amended except by a three-quarters majority of the People's National Assembly and confirmed by a two-thirds majority in a referendum held in the three Southern Provinces of the Sudan.


Article 3.

a) 'Constitution' refers to the Republican Order No. 5 or any other basic law replacing or amending it.

b) 'President' means the president of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan.

c) 'Southern Provinces of the Sudan' means the Provinces of Bahr El Ghazal, Equatoria and Upper Nile in accordance with their boundaries as they stood January 1, 1956, and other areas that were culturally and geographically a part of the Southern Complex as may be decided by a referendum.

  1. 'People's Regional Assembly" refers to the legislative body for the Southern Region of the Sudan.

  1. 'High Executive Council' refers to t he Executive council appointed by the President on the recommendation of the President of the High Executive Council and such body shall supervise the administration and direct public affairs in the Southern Region of the Sudan.

  1. 'President of the High Executive Council' refers the person appointed by the President on the recommendation of the People's Regional Assembly to lead and supervise the executive organs responsible for the administration of the Southern Provinces.

  1. 'People's National Assembly' refer to the National Legislative Assembly representing the people of the Sudan in accordance with the constitution.

  1. 'Sudanese' refers to any Sudanese citizens as defined by the Sudanese Nationality Act 1957 and any amendment thereof.


Article 4. The Provinces of Bahr El Ghazal, Equatoria and Upper Nile as defined in Article 3. (iii) shall constitute a self-governing Region within the Democratic Republic of the Sudan and be known as the Southern Region.

Article 5. The Southern Region shall have legislative and executive organs, the functions and power of which are defined by this law.

Article 6. Arabic shall be official language for the Sudan and English the principle language for the Southern Region without prejudice to the use of any language or languages, which may serve a practical necessity for the efficient and expeditious discharge of executive and administrative functions of the Region.


Article 7. Neither the People's Regional Assembly nor the High Executive Council shall legislate or exercise any powers on matters of national nature which are:

National Defense

External Affairs

Currency and Coinage

Air and Inter-Regional Transport

Communications and Telecommunications

Customs and Foreign Trade except for border trade and certain commodities, which the Regional Government may specify with the approval of the Central Government.

Nationality and Immigration (Emigration)

Planning for Economic and Social Development

Educational Planning



Article 8. Regional Legislation in the Southern Region is exercised by a People's Regional Assembly elected by Sudanese Citizens resident in the Southern Region. The constitution and condition of membership of the Assembly shall be determined by law.

Article 9. Members of the People's Regional Assembly shall be elected by direct secret ballot.

Article 10.

  1. For the First Assembly the President may appoint additional members to the People's Regional Assembly where conditions for elections are not conducive to such elections as stipulated in Article 9, provided that such appointed members shall not exceed one-quarter of the Assembly.


  1. The People's Regional Assembly shall regulate the conduct of its business in accordance with rules of procedures to be laid down by the said Assembly during it first sitting.


  1. The People's Regional Assembly shall elect one of its members as a speaker, provided that the first sitting shall be presided over by the Interim President of the High Executive Council.

Article 11. The People's Regional Assembly shall legislate for the preservation of public order, interim security, efficient administration and the development of the Southern Region in cultural, economic and social fields and in particular in the following:

    1. Promotion and utilization of Regional financial resources for the development and administration of the Southern Region.

    1. Organization of the machinery for Regional and Local Administration.

    1. Legislation on traditional law and custom within the framework of National Law.

    1. Establishment, maintenance and administration of prisons and reformatory institutions.

    1. Establishment, maintenance and administration of Public Schools at all levels in accordance with National Plans for education and economic and social development.

    1. Promotion of local languages and cultures.

    1. Town and village planning and the construction of roads in accordance with National Plans and programs

    1. Promotion of trade; establishment of local industries and markets; issue of traders' licenses and formation of co-operation societies.

    1. Establishment, maintenance and administration of public hospitals.

    1. Administration of environmental health services; maternity care; child welfare; supervision of markets; combat of epidemic diseases; training of medical assistants and rural midwives; establishment of health centers, dispensaries and dressing stations.

    1. Promotion of animal health; control of epidemics and improvement of animal production and trade.

    1. Promotion of tourism

    1. Establishment of zoological gardens, museums, organizations of trade and cultural exhibitions.

    1. Mining and quarrying without prejudice to the right of the Central Government in the event of the discovery of natural gas and minerals.

    1. Recruitment for, organization and administration of Police and Prison services in accordance with the national policy and standards.

    1. Land use in accordance with national laws.

    1. Control and prevention of pests and plant diseases.

    1. Development, utilization, and protection of forests crops and pastures in accordance with national laws.

    1. Promotion and encouragement of self-help programmes.

    1. All other matters delegated by the President or the People's National Assembly for legislation.


Article 12. The People's National Assembly may call for facts and information concerning the conduct of administration in the Southern Region.

Article 13.

    1. The People's Regional Assembly may, by a three-quarters majority and for specified reasons relating to public interest, request the President of relieve the President or any member of the High Executive Council from office. The President shall accede to such request.

    1. in case of vacancy, relief or resignation of the President of the High Executive Council, the entire body shall be considered as having automatically resigned.

Article 14. The People's Regional Assembly may, by a two-thirds majority, request the President to postpone the coming into force of any law which, in the view of the members, adversely affects the welfare and interests of the citizens of the Southern Region. The President may, if he thinks fit, accede to such request.

Article 15.

    1. The People's Regional Assembly may, by a majority of its members, request the President to withdraw any Bill presented to the People's National Assembly which in their view affects adversely the welfare, rights or interests of the citizens in the Southern Region, pending communication of the views of the People's Regional Assembly.

  1. If the President accedes to such request, the People's Regional Assembly shall present its views within 15 days from the date accession to the request.

  1. The President accedes to such request, The People's Regional Assembly together with his own observation if he deems necessary.

Article 16. The People's National Assembly shall communicate all Bills and Acts of the People's Regional Assembly for their information. The People's Regional Assembly shall act similarly.


Article 17. The Regional Executive Authority is vested in a High Executive Council which acts on behalf of the President.

Article 18. The High Executive Council shall specify the duties of the various departments in the Southern Region provided that on matters relating to Central Government Agencies it shall act with approval of the President.

Article 19. The President of the High Executive council shall be appointed and relieved of office by the President on the recommendation of the People's Regional Assembly.

Article 20. The High Executive Council shall be composed of members appointed and relieved of office by the President on the recommendation of the President of the High Executive Council

Article 21. The President of the High Executive Council and its members are responsible to the President and to the People's Regional Assembly for efficient administration in the Southern Region. They shall take an oath of office before the President.

Article 22. The President and members of the High Executive Council may attend meetings of the People's Regional Assembly and participate in its deliberations without the right of vote, unless they are also members of the People's Regional Assembly.


Article 23. The president shall form time to time regulate the relationship between the high Executive Council and the central ministries.

Article 24. The High Executive Council may initiate laws for the creation of a Regional Public Service. These laws shall specify the terms and conditions of service for the Regional Public Service.


Article 25. The People's Regional Assembly may levy Regional duties and taxes in addition to National and Local duties and taxes. It may issue legislation and orders to guarantee the collection of all public monies at different levels.

(One) The source of revenue of the Southern Region shall consist of the following:-

  1. Direct and indirect regional taxes.

  1. Contribution from People's Local Government Councils

  1. Revenue from commercial, industrial and agricultural projects in the Region in accordance with the National Plan.
  2. Funds from the National Treasury for established services.

  1. Funds voted by the people's National Assembly in accordance with the requirements of the Region.

  1. The Special Development Budget for the South as presented by the People's Regional Assembly for the acceleration of economic and social advancement of the Southern Region as envisaged in the declaration of June 9, 1968.

  1. See Appendix B.

  1. Any other sources.
(Two) The Regional Executive Council shall prepare a budget to meet the expenditure of regional services, security, administration, and development in accordance with national plans and programme and shall submit it to the People's Regional Assembly for approval.

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Espac Published by The European - Sudanese Public Affairs Council Copyright © David Hoile 2005
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